Traditional Chinese clothing have always had a strange attraction for many people around the world, especially for young Vietnamese. Each ethnic group has its own culture. They express their creativity and national beauty through their costumes. China is the country with the oldest and most complex culture in the world. As a country with thousands of years of history, a part has been depicted on traditional costumes. Over thousands of years of history, traditional Chinese costumes have many changes from time to time. Let’s find out the features of each traditional costume in your country in the sharing below.
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General characteristics of traditional Chinese clothing
For those who are followers of Chinese historical movies, it is certainly no stranger to traditional costumes. Some people even point out the clothes of each era. Because of that, the traditional costumes of China are extremely interested. A special feature of traditional Chinese clothing is that it is always changing and diverse in designs and motifs from time to time. Unlike many places in the world that have a fixed set of traditions, China is different, each costume has its own imprint of each era.
In addition, the traditional costumes for women will be more diverse in designs and colors than the ones for men. Most of the men’s traditional costumes are quite simple in terms of design and color. As for women’s costumes, the design is more sophisticated, colorful and bright. Besides, the costumes also divide the class from top to bottom based on the color, material, and pattern of the costume. For example, only kings or emperors wear yellow, dragon motifs. The color of the subordinates is governed by the law of yin and yang of the five elements.
Usually, the traditional costumes here will have a straight cut, a spacious shape to create comfort for the wearer. Besides, there will also be costumes with tight cuts to enhance the wearer’s figure. The overall look will see harmony. Traditional Chinese clothing is divided into two types, one-piece and two-piece.
In the past, the color of traditional Chinese clothing was regulated depending on the position of the wearer. If you are an emperor and a member of the royal family, you will be dressed in red, yellow and purple. Currently, this regulation is no longer available, so people can freely wear traditional costumes in their favorite colors. For important occasions such as weddings, Tet…, the color red is still prioritized with the concept of bringing good luck.
Women’s traditional Chinese costumes will be more diverse and cumbersome, with many accessories included. Men’s clothing is simpler. Material Over the ages, the fabric of traditional Chinese clothing has also changed a lot. From linen, silk, cotton… are selected for sewing. In particular, brocade fabric is the most chosen because of its luxurious color and respect for its shape.
In each dynasty, traditional costumes will have their own features and are the highlight to distinguish them from different dynasties. Each embroidery pattern, pattern has been changed through each historical period.
Traditional Chinese clothing through the ages
China has thousands of years of history with different dynasties. Each dynasty brought its own mark not only through its culture but also on the costumes.
1. Traditional Chinese clothing of the Xia Dynasty
The Xia Dynasty was the earliest feudal dynasty born in China, the Xia Dynasty’s clothes took black as the main color. The costume of this dynasty consisted of two main parts: the top shirt and the bottom pants. In which, the upper part of the shirt represents the sky, because before the Ming Dynasty, the Chinese people believed that the sky was black, so the upper shirt was usually black. The bottom pants represent the earth, because the earth is yellow, the bottom pants use yellow color. Costumes of this era were very simple, mostly black and gold.
2. Traditional Chinese clothing of the Zhou Dynasty
At this time, the design of traditional costumes has changed. A special feature is that the shirt no longer uses buttons or buttons. The collar will be folded and crossed to the left, tied with a belt across the abdomen, can wear more jade. Sleeves have two types of large and small tubes, the hem of pants or skirts are also of different lengths.
3. Merchant House
The costumes of this time did not distinguish between rich and poor, noble and low, nor did they distinguish between men and women. The costume is divided into two parts: the upper part and the lower part. The top is like a shirt, the shirt consists of two types, one is waist-length, the other is knee-length. This is a shirt for the average person to wear. The bottom is like pants, the skirt is hidden under the shirt, the sleeves are small. The folk costumes of women are similar to men’s costumes, except that the women’s costumes have a piece of cloth like an apron tied at the waist, no longer than the knee. This type of apron is called 襜.
4. Traditional clothes of the Qin Dynasty
Costumes in the Qin Dynasty had many major changes. Qin Shi Huang stipulated that only the king could wear a dragon robe and a yellow and black jade hat. People in the royal family, as mandarins, costumes are embroidered with patterns. Civilians were only allowed to wear simple, mostly gray, gray and unpatterned clothing.
5. Traditional Chinese clothing of the Tang Dynasty
The Tang Dynasty was the most flourishing of all China’s dynasties, and had a major twist in dress. If in other dynasties, the costumes exude a dignified and discreet look, while the Tang Dynasty was extremely impressed with the bold designs. Each costume model for all classes can cleverly show off the white skin of the neck or collarbone of the sisters.
At this time, the most popular costume model was the one with a short coat, small sleeves with a narrow skirt, a belt at the waist, combined with 2m long silk that was draped over the shoulders and inserted into the arms. Colors are also more comfortable than before with bright, vibrant colors. The king and queen took the main color yellow to represent authority.
6. Han Dynasty costume
Han Dynasty costumes have a similar design to those of the Qin Dynasty, but in terms of color, Han Dynasty costumes are usually brighter than those of the Qin Dynasty. Instead of the emperor’s costume with only two colors of black and gold, the imperial costume of the Han Dynasty had more colors.
7. Song Dynasty Costumes
It is considered to have a simple design, but the costumes of the Song Dynasty have a luxurious beauty. Women’s costumes usually have a short top with narrow sleeves, a long outerwear with two symmetrical flaps, and a long skirt underneath. The color of the dress is usually neutral, the design is more elegant than the Tang Dynasty.
8. Traditional Chinese clothing of the Yuan Dynasty
The Yuan Dynasty was the dominant dynasty of the Mongols, so the main dress under this period was 《质孙服》- a relatively short and tight robe, with many folds at the waist. This type of clothing is very convenient for horseback riding. Women of the aristocracy often wore a long, high-top hat, called 《罟罟冠》. They often wear long and wide robes, which are quite inconvenient when walking, so there are usually two maids behind to help the owner support the shirt. Robes are usually made of green fabric, topped with red brocade or made of gold, silk, feathers or woven wool. Ordinary women only wore black robes.
9. Traditional Chinese clothing of the Ming Dynasty
In the Ming Dynasty, the traditional dress is somewhat similar to the Tang Dynasty. Noble women often wore long robes, wide sleeves, bright colors and many patterns. Commoners only wear lighter colored clothes, short shirts and long skirts, with a silk belt at the waist. Men who work as mandarins wear burlap robes, square turbans on their heads, and commoners wear short shirts and scarves on their heads.
10. Qing Dynasty Costumes
During this period, there was a great change in costumes in the style of closed gates. Both men and women have high and closed collars, sleeves that are not too wide, and buttons on the right chest. The clothes of the Qing dynasty had bright colors, the king was black or golden, the hairstyle was different for men, half of the head was shaved, the second half of the tail was braided, and the women wore an octagonal hat.
Traditional Chinese costumes of the Republic and modern times
Traditional Chinese women’s costumes from the national period to the present day are cheongsam, also known as cheongsam, Truong Sam, and Ky Bao. Cheongsam appeared from the Qing Dynasty and this is considered a traditional costume of Chinese girls. Cheongsam from time to time will have changes to match fashion trends, but it still does not lose the original traditional features of the outfit.
Initially, cheongsam was sewn by selection, with a high round neck, tight fit, narrow sleeves, slits on both sides, the body is not too tight to the body, the shirt is straight, the dress is embroidered with iridescent flowers or thread. colorful and has rows of buttons connecting the flaps together. Cheongsam began to appear in the streets of Shanghai, Hangzhou, Suzhou, Yangzhou, etc.
Then cheongsam began to have influence from Western culture, the dress has changes such as collar can be round, high or split, sleeves can be cut short or lowe, the shirt can be cut short according to the length of the skirts, separate skirts with deep slits, in line with more modern fashion trends. The cheongsam helps a woman look more attractive and slim, the upper part hugs the body and the buttons are designed diagonally to the side, running along one side, the two high slits are both feminine and comfortable. , attractive. The front of the cheongsam can be embroidered with iridescent threads.
2. Chang Pao and Ma Gui
If cheongsam is the traditional costume of women, Truong Bao and Ma Quai are the traditional costumes of men. These two types of costumes are both costumes of the Qing Dynasty, with an inner collar design, narrow door sleeves. The Truong Pao costume is split on the side and the Ma Quai costume has the middle part, the knot, and the U-shaped sleeve.
There is also a model that combines Ma Quai and Truong Pao, the lower part of the shirt will be designed like Truong Bao and the upper part will have a design like Ma Quai and these two parts will be connected by a strip of buttons attached at the bottom. inside of Truong Bao. Clothing gives the wearer comfortable comfort when operating, walking and showing solemnity and politeness.
Traditional Chinese clothing through each era will have different designs that show the aesthetics as well as the cultural characteristics of each era. Each era will also have different conceptions of color, but the most popular colors are still yellow and black.
Traditional Chinese clothing for Tet and festivals
During Tet, the traditional cheongsam costume is worn by Chinese people during the Lunar New Year. The color of cheongsam on Tet holiday is usually red, the color symbolizing luck. In festive occasions, cheongsam is still the outfit that people wear. However, colors in festivals that are not Tet, you can choose any color you like. Today, traditional Chinese clothing are loved and bought by many young Vietnamese. Not only that, they are also used by Chinese restaurants in Vietnam to make uniforms for staff, …
China is a country with a long history and many different traditional cultures, of which it is worth mentioning the diversity and richness of traditional costumes. The article has studied Chinese traditional costumes through the ages in the most specific and detailed way, hopefully this will be an informative article for everyone.